Archive for 'Based On Cell Types'
Biphasic mesothelioma cases have perceived a growth in occurrence over the years. While biphasic cancer accounted for approximately 20 to 40 percent of all mesothelioma cases, making it the second most frequent type of mesothelioma, it has recently appeared in approximately 46 percent to 63 percent of all mesothelioma cases.Biphasic Mesothelioma Cancer: A Mixture of Epithelioid and Sarcomatoid Cancer CellsUnlike epithelioid mesothelioma and sarcomatoid mesothelioma, biphasic mesothelioma does not possess a unique cellular structure. Instead, biphasic mesothelioma cancer is a mixture of epithelioid mesothelioma and sarcomatoid mesothelioma cancer subtypes. The shape of epithelioid mesothelioma cancer cells is generally like a cube, but columnar and flattened cellular types are occasionally seen too. Meanwhile, the shape of sarcomatoid mesothelioma cancer cells is oval. Since patients with biphasic mesothelioma cancer possess two very dissimilar mesothelioma cell types associated with their illness, it will be an easier type of cancer to diagnose than either epithelioid or sarcomatoid (two cellular types that can be perplexed with an array of other cancers).
Normally, biphasic mesothelioma cancer yields a combination of both epithelial and sarcomatoid cells. These are typically arranged in groups within a tumor, rather than appearing as an even mixture of cells. In this sense, classifying a case of mesothelioma as biphasic is basically affirming that the patient possess both epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma. When epithelioid and sarcomatoid cancer cells are divided throughout various parts of the tumor, it can lead to a misdiagnosis of the mesothelioma’s subtype. For this reason, during diagnosis several samples are taken from different locations within a tumor using a biopsy. This helps to ensure that a correct diagnosis can be made, as this form of asbestos cancer does not have a unique cellular structure.
Evaluation of Biphasic Mesothelioma Cancer TumorsHistopathological examination of a section of the tumor (examination of the tissue) may reveal only epithelioid or only sarcomatoid cancer cells. By taking multiple sections of diseased tissue for examination, histopathologists are more likely to be able to recognize a case of biphasic mesothelioma cancer. (Histopathological advancements could be one possible explanation for the rise in biphasic mesothelioma cancer cases.) Misdiagnosis of a mesothelioma subtype is not a problem because there is no difference between the three.
What is sarcoma?Sarcoma is a form of cancer that originates in the supportive tissues of the body such as the cartilage, bone, muscle or fat.
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is a rarest type of cancer generated by exposure to abestos. Among all malignant mesothelioma cases, approximately about 10 to 15 percent are sarcomatoid mesothelioma. It is not easy to diagnose sarcomatoid mesothelioma and yet it has been resistant in responding to any type of therapy.
Mesothelioma is the most serious of all asbestos-related diseases. Like all forms of malignant mesothelioma cancer, sarcomatoid mesothelioma is both aggressive and fatal. Death usually takes place within six months of diagnosis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma.
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is one of the three main sub types of mesothelioma (pleural, peritoneal and pericardial) that are categorized in accordance with the appearance of the cell under a microscope. The other two are epithelioid mesothelioma and biphasic mesothelioma. These categories of mesothelioma cells are further able to be divided into other types of cancerous cells called:
Sarcomatoid cells are usually oval shaped, and more irregular. Besides, sarcomatoid cell nucleus is not as obviously visible if being seen under an electron microscope compared with the nuclei of epithelioid mesothelioma cancer cells. Since the irregular oval shape is usual among cancer cells, sarcomatoid mesothelioma frequently perplexed with sarcoma and with sarcomatoid carcinoma.Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma versus Sarcomatoid CarcinomaDue to the sarcomatoid appearance, including sarcomatoid carcinoma, sarcomatoid mesothelioma is easily perplexed with the wide variety of other forms of cancer . Although sarcomatoid cancer is located in other areas of the body, for instance the kidney part, it is reasonably rare in the lung area. Not more than 1.3 percent of lung carcinomas actually are of the sarcomatoid type.
Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is the type which is most often perplexed with sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Like sarcomatoid mesothelioma, sarcomatoid carcinomas in the lung are much more frequent in men (about four times more frequent than in women). Moreover, there is a convincing association with the smoking habit. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma and pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma also reveal particular symptoms, for instance pain in the chest, pleural effusions and difficulty in breathing.
Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma versus SarcomaSarcomatoid mesothelioma in addition, can be perplexed with high-grade sarcoma. While carcinoma influences the epithelium, sarcoma takes place in the supportive tissue (cartilage, bone, muscle or fat). Once the sarcoma metastize to the pleural surface, it will be hard to distinguish it from sarcomatoid mesothelioma.
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells and sarcoma cells can possess a comparable look under an electron microscope, and the staining of the tumor cells are able to provide parallel results. Insome cases like these, the pathologist needs to be cautious to contrast the staining of the cells and appearance, along with the whole look (localized versus diffuse pleural-based mass) and regularity of the tumor, when deducing a definitive diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma.
If your loved one or you are diagnosed with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma or high-grade sarcoma in the lungs and you experienced previous exposure to asbestos, it would be better to look for a second thorough evaluation from your current oncology specialist or a physician who has adequate experience in mesothelioma cases.
Epithelioid (epithelial) mesothelioma is the most frequent cell type and accounts for about 50% to 70% of all malignant mesothelioma cases. These cells are relatively uniform in shape and with a tubular pattern and a distinct cell nucleus. If viewed under high magnification, the cell nucleus is obviously discernible from other cell nuclei. The individual cells are shaped like cubes or multi-sided boxes.
Due to the resemblance between mesothelioma cancer cells and adenocarcinoma, these cells most of the time are perplexed and thus patients with this malignant mesothelioma have the possibility to be misdiagnosed. Examining the cancer cells using high-powered microscopes and detecting distinct traits of the chemical possessions of the cells can assist to conclude the appropriate diagnosis.
Differences between epithelioid mesothelioma and adenocarcinomaAdenocarcinoma is a type of cancer often confused with epithelioid mesothelioma since its form is like epithelioid mesothelioma. Besides, adenocarcinoma also appears in the mesothelium.
Both epithelioid mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma can be located in the mesothelium. What makes the difference between the two is the fact that the epethelioid is originated in the mesothelium and adenocarcinoma is not.
Adenocarcinoma originates in the body’s glandular tissue, in the lining or inner epithelium of an organ. Once an adenocarcinoma takes place in the lining of the lungs it is able to metastasize to the mesothelium, or pleura, covering the lungs. Because epithelioid mesothelioma can also appear in the pleura, it can be easily confused with adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma frequently presents itself as a benign tumor (adenoma) that can grow into a serious cancer over time.
Cancer of the epithelium is usually referred to as carcinoma. The two most common types of carcinoma are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is typically found in the lung, accounting for an approximate 30 to 40% of all lung-based carcinomas. Typically, lung-based adenocarcinomas are able to spread to the epithelial tissue lining of the lungs (mesothelium of the lungs; the pleura) and thus taking on the look of epithelioid mesothelioma.
Furthermore, since both epithelioid mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma derive from epithelial tissue, they posses a similar cellular look. Even if research states that the tumor cells in epithelioid mesothelioma are normally more uniform on a regular basis, cube-shaped and spread out than the tumor cells in adenocarcinoma, (which are more crowded and columnar) the difference is hard to decide on a case-by-case basis. To affix to this perplexity, chemical staining of epithelioid mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma cancer cells occasionally shows same results.
The medical signs for adenocarcinoma of the lung and malignant mesothelioma are also alike. The symptoms of these illnesses, both of which naturally influence the older population, include pain in the chest, pleural effusions (fluid build-up) and breathing difficulty. Thus, this is the reason why cancer of the mesothelium, or epithelioid mesothelioma, and cancer of the lung epithelium, adenocarcinoma, are often confused and can be misdiagnosed.
Facts and data of a family history are often able to help in distinguishing between adenocarcinoma and epithelioid mesothelioma. When a patient possesses a family history of carcinoma, it is more likely that he or she suffers from a variant of the disease. When a patient has a history of asbestos exposure, it is more likely that he or she suffers from epithelioid mesothelioma. Or, if you or a loved one got asbestos exposure and received a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, it may be worthwhile to look for a second diagnostic assessment, either by the same oncology specialist or a physician who has adequate experience in mesothelioma cases.
Based On Cell Types
Mesothelioma can also be classified by the cancer type or histological categories rather than the area affected by the cancer. There are three distinct types of mesothelioma based on histological categories:• Epithelioid — most common, best survival rate• Sarcomatoid — most severe, but more rare• Mixed/biphasic — a mixture of epithelioid and sarcomatoid cancerWithin this category, there are still subtypes and usually patients with mesothelioma show more than one type of cell.Epithelioid Mesothelioma CancerIt is discovered that epithelioid mesothelioma is the most frequent cell type. About 50% to 70% of malignant mesothelioma cases are epithelial and patients with this type of cancer tend to have the best survival rate. These cancer cells are somewhat identical in form and posses a tube-shaped pattern with a different cell nucleus. The form of each individual cell is like a cube or multi-sided boxes.Due to the resemblance between mesothelioma cancer cells and adenocarcinoma, these cells most of the time are perplexed and thus patients with this malignant mesothelioma have the possibility to be misdiagnosed. Examining the cancer cells using high-powered microscopes and detecting distinct traits of the chemical possessions of the cells can assist to conclude the appropriate diagnosis. Click here for deeper information on epithelioid mesothelioma cancer.
Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma CancerAmong malignant mesothelioma cases, sarcomatoid mesothelioma cancer is the least frequent. Approximately between10% to 15% of malignant mesothelioma cases are sarcomatoid. This type of cancer is more severe than the epithelioid. These cells normally own more of an egg-shaped, uneven shape and the core of every cell is not as noticeable with a microscope as the cells of epithelioid mesothelioma cancer. As a result of the resemblance of look, the sarcomatoid cancer cells are simply bemused with the more usual sarcoma cancer cells. Click here for deeper information on sarcomatoid mesothelioma cancer.
Biphasic Mesothelioma CancerRoughly, about 20% to 40% of the malignant mesothelioma cancer cells fall under the biphasic category. This category, in fact, is the combination of the epithelioid and sarcomatoid types. The biphasic mesothelioma cancer can take place with the two types of cells mingled constantly throughout the tumor, or with them in particular groupings. Transitional areas between the two cell types are most of the time present. Click here for deeper information on biphasic mesothelioma cancer.